Welcome to our blog. Check back often for official news and announcements from the KGBA and articles on various topics of Kinder goat care, raising, breeding, showing and more!
Ballots have been tabulated, and the KGBA is pleased to welcome our newest member, Kendra Shatswell, to the Board of Directors for 2021. Thank you all for participating – 277 ballots were sent out and 103 were returned. Your voice counts and your input makes a difference in our association. Results are as follows:
Sue Beck – 96
John James (write in) – 3
Ashley Kennedy – 95
Stefanie Idzikowski (write in) – 2
Kim Moff (write in) – 1
Dawn Neighbors (write in) – 1
Derek Eddy (write in) – 1
John James – 91
Alis Uyguanco (write in – ineligible) – 8
Lisa LaRose (write in) – 2
Dawnette Dobrick (write in) – 1
Lisa LaRose – 90
Dawnette Dobrick (write in) – 11
Kimberly Moff (write in) – 1
Member At Large (2021-2023)
Kendra Shatswell – 60
Stephanie Lounsbury-Griffen – 40
Derek Eddy (write in) – 1
Bylaw amendment proposal results were as follows:
Article VI – Board of Directors
In Favor – 72
Against – 10
Article IX – Nominations and Elections – Balloting and Tabulation
In Favor – 78
Against – 4
Article XV – Amendments to the By-Laws – Amendments by Membership
In favor – 74
Against – 8
Based on current by-laws, we are required to have a majority of our membership vote in favor of a proposal in order to modify the by-laws. Therefore, although those who returned their ballots were overwhelmingly in favor of the proposals, these amendments did not pass.
Growing first generation Kinder goats is an important part of the Kinder breeding program and necessary for the advancement of this lovely breed. First generation Kinders are the result of breeding a 100% Purebred Nubian dairy goat and a registered Pygmy goat. From 1st generation Kinders, all other generations are achieved. Producing 1st generation Kinder goats of good quality is ultimately the most important way to ensure a good foundation to build a superb Kinder herd. Thinking about raising 1st generation Kinders? Awesome idea, the breed needs more diversity. There are some things to think about when considering your breeding stock Nubians and Pygmies for this project.
Nubian dairy goats come in a range of body types. Nubians, who are the descendants of Jumna Pari goats, can be of very dairy character, and on the thinner-boned side. They can also be larger, heavier-boned ‘old-style or Anglo-Nubian. American Nubians are the ancestors of the original Anglo-Nubian goats produced by breeding in Zairaibi goats to add thickness and fleshing to the breed by the British. The first Anglo-Nubian goats arrived in America in 1896 and were officially established as a breed in 1913. Anglo was dropped and they were just called Nubian.
Pygmy goats are a miniature domestic breed from Africa known for their hardiness, friendliness, year-around kidding and adaptability for nearly any climate. Pygmy goats were imported to the US from Brittan in the 1950’s and mainly used for pets and exhibition.
As you can see by the best qualities of both breeds, we get heavy-boned, midsized goats with hardiness, friendly personalities, good milk quality, production, and year around breeding. Their smaller size provides a better milk-to-feed cost ratio than traditional dairy breeds. What a great combination. Picking those breeding animals is important because inferior Nubians and Pygmies will make inferior Kinders. Starting with good quality stock, although not guaranteed, increases the chance of good Kinders.
The common and healthiest option is to breed the Pygmy Buck to a Nubian doe. You can produce Kinders from a Pygmy doe and Nubian buck but the chance of kidding issues is huge due to the problem of birthing kids that are too large for the Pygmy to deliver. Pick a good old-style Nubian of heavy bone, level topline, and excellent udder capacity and construction. Knowing the milk history of the doe’s dam and grand dam is important. Check for kidding problems, disease, and quality of siblings if possible. Inspect the sire if possible and his dam’s milk records. Have any stock tested for CL, CAE, and Johnes. Consider other disease testing if animals come from an area of specific disease such as TB, as many states are TB free.
When picking a Pygmy buck, you want a long bodied, level, heavy boned and muscled animal. A long body allows plenty of room for kids to grow. Heavy bone and muscle helps to ensure Kinders are stocky. Most Pygmy breeders do not milk so it is important to closely inspect if possible the teats and udders of the Pygmy and his Dam/Sire. Rule out any buck with teat deformities, spurs, or extra teats. Pick a buck that is not timid. A timid buck may be too scared to breed a much larger Nubian.
Pick animals that are naturally healthy. Ask about any history of kidding problems, how often the stock has been wormed, needed other medications, or if there have been any illnesses or injuries. Some goats just require less intervention and raising stock genetically healthier can save time, money and heartache. Avoid animals that are routinely wormed or require routine meds to maintain health. When breeding these goats, you may need to provide height to assist. You can assist by providing a step, hay bale or other platform. The doe may have to be positioned against it when in standing heat for breeding to occur. A Pygmy buck would most likely not be able to breed from level ground.
The Kinder breed needs additional genetics and growing great 1st generation Kinders is a wonderful way to improve the breed. New quality lines make the breed stronger. Having Nubians, Pygmy goats, and Kinders can open up a dialog with visitors about the breed and the benefit of the combination of these breeds. What a great way to promote these amazing animals.
By Lisa LaRose
Parasite management is crucial to a healthy, happy goat. The goal is a low-enough parasite burden animal health is not compromised. While there is not a singular parasite management plan that works for every farm, there are a few practices every owner should follow that will ensure goats are dewormed correctly and prolong the efficacy of chemical dewormers. Additionally, every goat owner should be aware of parasite resistance, and strive to postpone it as long as possible. “Anthelmintic resistance is defined as a heritable genetic change in a population of worms that enables some individual worms to survive drug treatments that are generally effective against the same species and stage of infection at the same dose rate,” according to “Biology of Anthelmintic Resistance: These Ain’t Your Father’s Parasites” by Dr. Ray M. Kaplan.
First, owners need to understand there are different classes of dewormers, also referred to as anthelmintics. A class consists of dewormers that share a similar mode of action. Many dewormers are off-label – not approved for goats without a valid relationship with a veterinarian. For a handy chart on dewormers, complete with dosages and crucial notes, visit https://www.wormx.info/dewormers or search the files at Goat Vet Corner group on Facebook.
The first class is benzimidazoles, also called the “white dewormers.” Dewormers in this class include fenbendazoles, albendazoles, and oxybendazole. Since this class has been around the longest, stomach worms are often resistant to these dewormers. Remember that resistance varies from farm to farm. Fenbendazoles are effective against tapeworms and albendazoles are effective against adult liver flukes.
The second class is the macrocyclic lactones, which include avermectins and milbemycines. According to “Choosing the Right Drug for Worm Control” by Dr. Lisa Williamson – “Avermectins include ivermectin, eprinomectin, and doramectin. Moxidectin, a milbemycin, is chemically very similar to the avermectins…Moxidectin is a more potent, lipophilic macrocyclic lactone than ivermectin.” Though they are in the same class, moxidectin can still be effective where ivermectin is not.
The third class is the Imidazothiazole/tetrahydropyrimidine class. Common class members include levamisol and mortanel. Levamisol, while it is the easiest to overdose and MUST be carefully dosed by weight, is often the most effective class currently available in the United States.
|DRUG CLASS||DRUG||COMMON CLASS MEMBERS|
|Benzimidazoles||fenbendazoles, albendazoles, oxybendazoles||Safeguard, Panacur|
|Macrocyclic lactones||ivermectins, moxidectin, doramectin, eprinomectin||Ivomec, Quest, Cydectin, Dectomax, Eprinex|
|Imidazothiazole/tetrahydropyrimidine||levamisol, mortanel tartrate,||Prohibit, Rumatel|
Do NOT rotate dewormers.
Rotating between classes and dewormers leads to parasite resistance and accelerates dewormer failure. Find what dewomer works on your farm based on fecal egg count reduction tests – determine the egg count prior to deworming compared to fecal egg count 10-14 days after deworming. An effective dewormer will have at least a 95% kill rate. Dewormers can still be useful with a lower kill rate, but it might be a good idea to either combine two classes or use in conjunction with another alternative treatment, such as copper oxide wire particles or a diet high in tannins.
A DrenchRite® test is also available that determines what parasites your herd is burdened with and the effectiveness of each dewormer class on the parasites. At the time this article is written, the DrenchRite® test cost $450.
Dewormers from two or more classes can be combined to deworm new animals, or prolong the life of dewormers when resistance has been noted or a dewormer class has failed. Note that these are given at the same time, but NOT mixed together. It should be cautioned that improper use of combination dewormers could select for worms that are resistant to ALL anthelmintics. For more information on combining dewormers and the DrenchRite® test, please refer to the following: https://www.wormx.info/combinations and https://www.wormx.info/drenchriteassay.
Do NOT deworm on a schedule.
Contrary to recommendations given when dewormers first became available, deworming should not be scheduled. We now know scheduling treatment accelerates resistance, and chemical deworming should NOT be preventive. Parasite numbers wax and wane during different seasons, and in different conditions. Lactating does will likely be more susceptible to parasite burdens than a dry doe, and bucks are more likely to be susceptible in rut, etc….As detailed in the “Barber Pole Worm” article in the Winter 2017 newsletter, Barber Pole worms and other internal parasites thrive in certain conditions and will have lower survival rates in others. For example, Barber Pole worm eggs and larvae survive very well in warm, humid conditions, but use up their energy stores very quickly in dry heat. Learn about the life cycle and preferred conditions of the parasites your herd is dealing with to better manage them – Goat Biology.com has some excellent animated slides detailing the lives of common goat parasites. The American Consortium for Small Ruminant Parasite Control offers many articles and files on the subject, as well.
Deworm only the animals that require treatment.
By selecting only animals that need deworming versus deworming the entire herd, the goat-keeper does not expose all worms to the chemical, thereby slowing the worm’s ability to develop genes to resist the anthelmentic. The idea of leaving unexposed parasites is called refugia. The Latin term means “in refuge.” By leaving untreated animals and therefore unexposed worms, there will be few resistant worms to mate with many susceptible worms, and the resistant genes will be diluted in the next generation. Refugia refers both to adult worms not exposed to dewormer and the larvae and eggs on pasture that were not the product of resistant worms.
Furthermore, it is documented that the parasite burden is NOT evenly distributed among the herd. Research shows 20-30% of goats in a herd will carry up to 80% of all parasites. By first identifying, then deworming and/or culling these animals, the goat owner will greatly reduce the parasite burden both in the goats and on the pasture.
Deworm animals based on FAMACHA scores – remember this only indicates anemia that is generally caused by Barber Pole worms or liver flukes – the Five Point system, and/or a fecal showing a high eggs per gram count. Many producers misuse the FAMACHA system – check out https://www.wormx.info/dosdonts.
Fecals are crucial to determine what parasites your goats are burdened with, how heavy that burden is, and how well your dewormer and deworming practices are working. Utilize your livestock veterinarian, send in samples to the Veterinary Parasitology Laboratory (http://www.midamericaagresearch.net) or invest in your own microscope. Tolerable parasite levels will vary from farm to farm and goat to goat. Remember that some goats are more resilient to parasite burdens than others, but these animals are shedding higher numbers of eggs in the pasture.
Dose by weight to avoid under-dosing. WEIGH THE GOAT BEFORE DOSING. If you do not have access to a livestock scale, weight tapes or cloth measuring tapes are a cheap investment. Administer the dewormer correctly – from the article “Choosing the Right Drug for Worm Control” – “Delivery deep into the oral cavity avoids closure of the esophageal groove, so the medication goes into the rumen rather than the abomasum. This step facilitates longer contact time of the drug with the gastrointestinal tract and improves drug efficacy.”
Dewormers in the forms of pour-ons, injections, and long-range (persistent activity) dewormers have proved to be generally ineffective in goats. These sub-lethal levels mean many worms survive and develop those dreaded resistant genes. For further reading, check out “Should I consider using LongRange™ dewormer for parasite control in small ruminants?” by Dr. Ray Kaplan.
Fasting the animal 12-24 hours before treating with ivermectins and/or benzimadazoles is a good idea, with the exception of does in late gestation. This increases drug availability, meaning the worms will be exposed to the drug for longer and are thus more likely to be killed.
As goat producers, we are exercising parasite management, not parasite elimination.
Dr. David Fernandez explained in an online parasite information session, “No matter how hard you try, you cannot eliminate every parasite from your animals. If you try hard enough, you will create some of the toughest parasites on Earth which will eventually make your life miserable, not to mention your goats’. Instead, we need to focus on managing parasites so that they do not cause an intolerable level of harm.” In conclusion, managing – not eliminating – parasites will vary from farm to farm but ALWAYS dose correctly and treat only animals the need treated, and NEVER rotate dewormers or deworm on a schedule. Utilize tools like fecals and FAMACHA to determine which animals need treated and to determine effectiveness of the treatment.
- “Biology of Anthelmintic Resistance: These Ain’t Your Father’s Parasites”; Ray M. Kaplan, DVM, PhD, DipACVM, DipEVPC College of Veterinary Medicine University of Georgia, Athens, GA
- “Choosing the Right Drug for Worm Control”; Lisa Williamson DVM, MS, DACVIM University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine Athens, Georgia, USA
- “Correct Administration of Anthelmentics” Ken Pettey Department of Production Animal Studies, Gareth Bath Department of Production Animal Studies, Jan van Wyk Department of Veterinary Tropical Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Science, University of Pretoria.
- “Do’s and Don’ts of FAMACHA Scoring©” Katherine Petersson, PhD Associate Professor of Animal Science, University of Rhode Island
- “Extending the Efficacy of Anthelmintics”; Lisa H Williamson, DVM, MS, DACVIM University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine
- “Goat and Sheep Parasite Control” (powerpoint presentation) Jerry Lamb, University of Tennessee Extension, Rhea County.
- “Refugia – Overlooked as Perhaps the Most Potent Factor Concerning the Development of Anthelmintic Resistance”  Van Wyk, J.A. (Pretoria Univ., Onderstepoort (South Africa). Veterinary Tropical Diseases Dept.)
- “Should I consider using LongRange™ dewormer for parasite control in small ruminants?”; by Dr. Ray Kaplan Professor of Parasitology, Department of Infectious Diseases College of Veterinary Medicine University of Georgia Athens, Georgia
By Kendra Shatswell
During the Kinder Goat Show at the Missouri State Fair in 2019, the KGBA held an official One Day Milk Test. What is a One Day Milk Test? Let me explain! A One Day Milk Test is a snapshot of your doe’s production and milk components. The test weighs the milk and measures the percentage of protein and butterfat.
How does it work?
First, there is an official milk out, done at a designated time and verified by the milk tester. This “sets the clock,” so to speak, to make sure all participating does are milked out completely at the same time; the initial milk out sets the start time for the first udder fill period. This milk out is not weighed or sampled for testing. During this milk out, tattoos and registrations are verified.
Twelve hours after the initial milk out, the does are milked out again, under the milk tester’s supervision. The milk is weighed with a certified scale and a sample is taken for testing. The sample goes into a container with a preservative to protect its integrity.
The final milk out occurs twelve hours after the second milk out. This milk is also sampled and weighed. Sampling both milkings in the 24 hour period gives a total composite sample, since butterfat content can change throughout the day.
The total weights are available immediately after milk outs. Samples are sent to the lab for butterfat and protein analysis; results are usually available the day after the lab receives the samples. Results are calculated and sent to individual recipients.
Why participate in a One Day Milk Test?
A One Day Milk Test is an opportunity to view a snapshot of your doe’s production, including protein and butterfat content. This information can be helpful determining breeding and management decisions. It is also very helpful for those who do not have easy access to a lab or for those who do not wish to participate in a continuous milk test. Your doe can earn her milk stars in a One Day Milk Test. Participating in a One Day Milk Test is fun and easy!
What do I need to do to participate?
Milk your goat as you normally would, and come to the location where the One Day Milk Test is being held. Make sure your goats are registered and tattooed. Currently, if One Day Milk Tests have enough interest at a show, the KGBA is sponsoring the tests at no cost to members. Shows offering One Day Milk Testing are announced on the KGBA website and the Kinder Goat Folks and Kinder Goat Shows Facebook pages.
If you have any questions about milk testing, please visit the milk testing page or feel free to contact Ashley Kennedy at firstname.lastname@example.org. Stay tuned for part two, “What Do My Milk Test Results Mean?” in a future article! Until then, happy milking!
By Stefanie Idzikowski
Driving along Fales road in Washington State is a bit like riding a gentle roller coaster. Twists and turns are interspersed with rolling hills, cutting through farms old and new. There are large equestrian facilities and small hobby farms. There are homes with simple fences and some with acres of white, vinyl fencing. This is an area that, despite surrounding growth, has maintained its charm and rural character. It is called Snohomish, and it was home to Pat and Art, the Showalters. If you’ve never been to Zederkamm farm, grab a cup of coffee and sit back – I will take you there.
Driving up to Pat’s house, one must slow significantly so as not to miss the turn. At the end of a long, steep, twisted gravel driveway, you would find Pat and everything she loved. Pat greeted visitors upon arrival, dressed in her farm attire: jeans, checkered blouse, apron, and boots. On rainy days, her small frame would be swallowed up in bulky rain gear, water dripping from the brim of her hat. Still, Pat would smile and laugh, eager to visit and show you around. She wore her long hair pulled back on most days, oftentimes tied up in a scarf to keep it under control. Her smile was wide and bright, her laughter contagious.
If you’re going for a visit at Pat’s place, you’d better plan to stay for a while. She loved to share stories over tea with sandwiches and cookies. She would warm the fire in her woodstove and show you her latest creations. Her home was simple. A chair, a couch, an old braided rug, and woodstove comprised the living room. Beautiful plants adorned the large atrium window, stretching out towards the sun. Pat kept it humid for them with a black kettle on the stove, but she was never sure if her lemon tree was going to survive. Her art was everywhere. Pat’s prized figurines were displayed on shelves, many of them goats. Did you expect cows? More pictures, small plants, decorative plates and tea pots, everything special to Pat was on those shelves. It wasn’t cluttered. It wasn’t in excess. After 80 years of life, these were her keepers.
A short wall separated the living room from the dining room. The large farmhouse table with vintage chairs served as both an eating space and her office. Laid neatly on the table was her inventory for sale: all kinds of handcrafted items that you could take home. Often I would purchase items from Pat for gifts, but sometimes these “gifts” were just for me.
After a nice cup of tea and some goodies, a tour of the farm was in order. This was where Pat truly shined. Another farm gate kept the “pesky” chickens and ducks from wandering too far. It also served as the last resort if a clever goat managed to open a gate or spring his or her buddies from their pens. “You see,” Pat would tell me, “we live with toddlers who are frequently unmonitored. There’s no telling what they’ll do.” This was often followed by a story of the most recent escapade by one of her bucks or does. Pat would open the gate into her world. She would invite you in to see her special place, meet her closest friends. On your walk you would see gardens bursting with vegetables, berries, and flowers. Fruit trees, maple, fir, and cedar – this was a farm rich for the senses.
Zederkamm farm was home to all kinds of animals. Pat and Art raised Nubian and pygmy goats and eventually Kinders. They had chickens, ducks, and peafowl. They even had an orphaned deer, or so I was told. Beneath the towering cedar canopy were small barns, chicken coops, and goat shelters. There were so many chickens and ducks, too many to name. But the goats – they all had names. Study some of the early pedigrees from Pat’s herd, and you will see how busy she was. She was greatly rewarded for her efforts. The animals trusted her. They loved her. It was very obvious. During the day, the animals and all living things on that farm depended on her, and she them.
When I first met Pat, she had already thinned her herd. This was in 2010 and by that time, she wasn’t breeding nearly as many does as she once did. Pat also offered buck service, and business was brisk. I was in awe of Pat every single time I visited. Keenly aware of our age difference, I just shook my head and marveled at her strength and agility. “Here, let me get the boys some fresh hay,” she would say, as she climbed a towering hay stack. Pat was so giving of her time and experience. She loved to host events that would bring her “goat friends” to the farm. Annual blood draws became a big party each spring. Biosecurity was very important to her, and she knew that some people didn’t have access or the means to get their goats tested. Pat would invite her veterinarian to Zederkamm farm, and for a nominal fee, participants could have their goats tested. Problem solved! The day would begin with coffee and doughnuts, followed by a farm tour, blood draws and then lunch! Pat was in her element.
A friend to all, that’s what she was. It didn’t matter if you were a seasoned Kinder goat breeder or a complete newbie, Pat was “always happy to talk goat!” She was a night owl. You could count on her responding to your emails in the middle of the night because that’s when Pat squeezed in time for herself. She would gladly spend an hour on the phone with you if you had questions or concerns. Her voice was calming. No situation was too dire to elicit any form of panic, ever. She would chuckle and tell you, “Ah yes, those pesky goats are at it again, aren’t they?” If you just wanted to talk and find out how she was doing or what she was up to, phone calls at night could last for hours.
On December 2, 2018, the Kinder family lost a beloved friend. Pat left suddenly and without warning, leaving behind an army of admirers. Pat touched so many lives in so many ways. She can never be replaced, but her memory will remain strong in all of us. We can honor her memory by doing what she did. Be a mentor and provide support if you can. Be a calming presence. Be kind.
By Stephanie Lounsbury Griffin
A request was recently made for more information on KGBA membership numbers.
The Kinder Goat Breeders Association originally offered 50 Charter memberships, which was later increased by 50 to a total of 100 Charter members. When ballots were sent out in the fall of 2013, we had 46 chart members still receiving ballots. Each Charter member received 2 ballots, as do Family members. Because of this – there can be a large discrepancy between the number of ballots that are sent out and our actual membership count. For example, in the fall of 2013, we had a total of 117 members (49 adult, 46 charter, 22 family), but sent out 253 ballots. Due to a decline in the number of Charter members*, the number of members that receive 2 ballots has decreased over time, while our actual membership numbers have increased. Also note that Youth members are not counted in these numbers – these numbers are based on voting membership only.
This year (fall of 2020), we have a total of 203 members, including 129 adults, 11 charter and 63 family memberships.
277 ballots were sent out.
We have seen relatively steady growth over the years, with our actual annual paid membership (not including charter or youth) growing from 71 in 2013 to 192 in 2020.
Fall 2013 – 117
Fall 2014 – 127
Fall 2015 – 128
Fall 2016 – 205 (this number is based on newsletters and therefor includes youth membership, so is higher than actual voting membership. I am including it here because it has been posted in the past, and using a different number here would likely lead to confusion. Please note that all other numbers are based on voting membership only.)
Fall 2017 – 187
Fall 2019 – 191
Fall 2020 – 203
*Due to deaths and requests by members to be removed from the list, we are now down to 11 Charter members.
-Sue Beck, KGBA President
Disclaimer: The opinions, views, and thoughts expressed by newsletter and blog contributors do not necessarily reflect those of the Kinder® Goat Breeders Association. Goat husbandry advice found in the newsletter and blog is not meant to substitute a valid veterinary relationship. Please request permission to share or reprint newsletter and blog posts.